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Obligation de diligence dans la Loi sur les délits

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Obligation de diligence en Donaghue-v-Stevenson 1932 a été définie comme exercice de tels soins out of the box due à ces ‘actes ou omissions dont on peut raisonnablement prévoir qu’a l’intention de blesser les personnes directement touchées qui vous devriez raisonnablement les obtenir en contemplation’ et Caparo Industries – v-Dickman 1990 visé et par lequel il peut être juste, juste des situationset il est raisonnable d’imposer.

Cette obligation est envers 1 à proximité physique : par exemple, dans Haseldine – v – Daw 1941 à l’utilisateur d’un ascenseur réparé par négligence, Buckland – v-Guilford Gas Light 1941 à enfant électrocuté par câbles faibles sur l’escalade d’un arbre, bien que pas avec une mère de choc ni de fausse couche à un seul qui avait précédemment été étant qui la force motrice ainsi que le pilote ne pouvait pas pour savoir qui étaient autour de King – v-Phillips 1953 avocat et Bourhill – v-Young 1942 ; afin qu’ils puissent un sur la proximité juridique : par exemple, dans Donaghue-v-Stevenson 1932 pour cause de maladie, de la consommation de boisson du fabricant acheté par un autre et pas si immunitaire comme politique publique dans Hill – v-Chief Constable 1988 ou avocats ou juges – Saif – v-Sydney Mitchell 1980 ; ainsi qu’à un avec les liens de sang : par exemple, dans McLoughlin – v-o ‘ Brien 1982 d’une mère qui par la nouvelle de l’accident « il était évident que vous ne trouverez pas touchés » ~ il peut être dû pour financière diminution des relations professionnelles privilégiées-mutuelle Assurance-vie – v-Evett 1971, imprudente mots ne fournis pas clairement comme étant sans responsabilité-Hadley Byrne – v-Heller & partenaires 1964et pour choc nerveux graves – Reilly – v-Merseyside RHA 1994.

La blessure, en outre, s’ils sont raisonnablement prévisibles est – Fardon – v-Harcourt 1932, négligence pourrait donner droit à dommages-intérêts, même punitif, Rookes v–Bernard 1964, bien que si dédaigneusement revendiquée pour aussi peu que la plus petite monnaie sonnante et trébuchante, par exemple, sans frais et nominale à Constantine – kiehls avocado eye cream v-Imperial London Hôtels 1944.

Les circonstances dans laquelle une obligation de diligence peut être rompu, sauf dans le cas spécifique délits comme la diffamation ou intrusion – ou sous la Rylands – v-Fletcher règle où légalement, mais à vos propres risques et périls fabriqués tout contre nature par l’utilisation des terres et à l’exclusion des cas de l’immunité et les circonstances, l’endroit où une obligation légale a exercé correctement porte atteinte au droit – tels que la perturbation causée par le bruit des avions prenant d’ou l’atterrissage – cependant , pas si mal exercé : Fisher – v-Ruislip-Northwood UDC 1945, ces circonstances peuvent être sans se soucier si un risque est connu et qu’il ne s’est opposé à: Smith – v-Charles Baker & fils, 1891, en effet, dans lesquelles un risque est connu et a maintenant été consenti à: Bowater – v-Rowley Regis Corp 1944 ~ même si vous avez la négligence contributive : Stapley – v-gypse Mines Ltd 1953-en effet même si malgré les instructions.

La typique est celui de « l’homme raisonnable » ; Si la blessure était risqué : Bolton – v-Pierre 1951 ~ 6 fois en 3 décennies ne signifies ne pas, ainsi que le degré du danger est proportionnelle que de diligence requise ; la gravité de la blessure risquée de trop est proportionnelle la quantité de soins nécessaire : Paris – v-Stepney BC 1951 – plus à employé aveuglent dans un oeil, et non le total néanmoins du genre de la blessure sur cette base que : British Railways Board. -v-Herrington, 1972 ; social value si justifiée danger : dans Fisher échec étaient justifiées en temps de guerre occultants pour obtenir des lumières ombragées à Protégez-vous des nuisances pour le cycliste, en Watt – v-Hertfordshire CC 1954 achat véhicule mal dans cette zone de l’accident a été justifié par le temps précieux qui va ont déjà été perdus en permettant qu’il y aider ; l’examen des coûts et avantages : dans Latimer v – CEA-1953 à l’avoir fait plus de raisonnable aurait pu soulever le risque trop éloigné par comparaison – sauf devrait-il exister une obligation légale, y compris dans la santé & de la sécurité des actes ; Cette norme dans l’exemple de la négligence de l’expert est, au contraire – Latimer, d’un expert raisonnable.

Le lien entre la violation de l’obligation ainsi que les dommages qui en résultent doivent être prouvées d’exister devrait être fait ou peut-être un couple de droit. HMO est sensible à la règle « mais pour »: Barnett – v-Chelsea etc.. Violation de hôpital etc. 1968 par l’échec sur le médecin à appeler n’a pas été la cause de la mort, McWilliams Arrol – v-Sir 1962 a échoué étant donné que la ceinture de sécurité sont portés en fait pas si fournie, dans les moteurs – v-Vauxhall Cutler 1971 l’opération sur un graze avait été récemment commandée sur un ulcère sur le site que moi et serait une condition préexistante ; mais, juste n’est pas cassé un lien de causalité par voie de cause consécutif et n’a pas diminuer l’initiale des facteurs dans Baker – v-Willoughby 1970 un préjudice en résultant, ni nécessairement faire perdre à causes multiples lorsque, selon la prépondérance des probabilités, le lien était considérablement l’explication : McGhee – v-National Coal Board, 1973 ; Lorsque le préjudice ou certaines d’entre elles provient du manquement à une tierce partie la « mais pour » l’article mentionne toujours si type he de blessure arrive à voir : Hogan – v Betinck Colliers 1949.

Susmentionné s’applique uniquement dans le cas où la violation n’est pas trop éloignée, plus ce n’était pas en Wieland – v-Cyril Seigneur tapis 1969 le fait qu’ailleurs et plus tard l’automne avait entraîné par la nécessité de se défaire des verres à double foyer causées par la négligence du conducteur ; la sensibilité particulière dans le prestataire ne serait pas grave – règle “crâne de coquille d’oeuf”: Robinson – v-Mailbox 1974-« on doit prendre la victime comme il le trouve “; à l’intérieur de 1961 Wagonmound pendant le temps de la violation que le pétrole déversé pourrait brûler sur l’eau de mer pouvait guère raisonnable, ainsi que pour Doughty – v-Turner MFG. 1964 suite à l’expertise de l’État, il est effectivement prévu ; employant Bradford – v-Robinson locations 1967 que les gelures a été cause fournissant un van sans passer par un appareil de chauffage.

La preuve du requérant peut aller à la partie défenderesse : Steer – v durables en caoutchouc 1956 ; pas moins de certains éléments de preuve n’est nécessaire de négligence même si « les faits parlent d’eux-mêmes »-ils vont pas dans le cas où le prestataire ne peut pas dire si ce qui s’est passé : Wakelin – v-LSWR 1886, négligence pouvait inférer un manque d’explication par la défenderesse, pour n’importe quel prestataire légalement Reform (négligence contributive) Act 1945 réduction proportionnelle est faite.

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7 tips for mortgage renewal time

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It is that time of the year for you to renew your mortgage and all you want to do is sign the papers and get done with it. However, you shouldn’t be in a haste to renew your mortgage without doing a little research.

A good fraction of Canadian homeowners—about 27 per cent of them—who carry a mortgage have automated their renewal process, according to a survey by Angus-Reid. While the aim is most likely to avoid any penalties or stress that comes with missing a renewal, this approach can prove costly. Automatically renewing your mortgage means you lose out on great opportunities to save money and take further advantage of any new products and features on your mortgage that may be advantageous to you.

Typically, mortgage renewals occur at the end of your existing mortgage term and the most popular period is usually 5 years—though it can range from 1 to 10 years. Depending on your mortgage type, with a fixed rate mortgage calculator, you can easily estimate your monthly mortgage payment and know how much you’re due on your next payment.

However, before you make your next mortgage payment, here are some important tips that would help you get the most out of your mortgage renewal.

1. Review your current goals

It is possible that your financial needs must’ve changed since you first applied for a mortgage. Therefore, before your sign that renewal slip, you may want to take another look at your financial goals.

For instance, if you’re currently on a five-year fixed mortgage, your renewal would likely come with another five-year fixed mortgage. If you’re certain you would be staying in your home for that amount of time, then renewing it would be great. However, if you have plans of relocating to a different city in a couple of years, then a shorter mortgage term would be best.

Other financial goals that you may want to consider is whether you want to refinance your mortgage or access some equity with Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC).

2. Ask for better rates

Before your mortgage renewal is due, your current lender would most likely try to get you to renew early. Typically, you will receive a renewal letter from your lender 6 months and 4 months before your renewal date. While they may offer you a rate that is lower than what you currently pay, it is often not the best rate you can get.

The renewal offer given to you by your lender is often not the best deal and in an increasing rate environment, negotiating your renewal rate is even more important. Signing the renewal letter right away because of some discount offered by your lender might seem tempting but you are potentially losing out on a lot of savings by not considering other available options.

3. Shop early for better rates

Rather than just accepting your current lender’s renewal offer immediately, you can start searching early for other providers and comparing their rates to see which one is most favourable for you. If you begin at least four months before your renewal due date, you will be giving yourself enough time to make a switch, if necessary.

While there are no major penalties if you choose to switch providers, there are some charges incurred that are typically covered by your new mortgage provider. You may not be able to change your mortgage provider until the actual renewal date, but this would give you enough time to find the right product and sort out every required paperwork.

4. Take advantage of a renewal rate hold

A mortgage renewal rate hold allows you to lock in a particular mortgage rate before your renewal is due. Normally, rate hold can last for about 90 to up to 160 days, protecting you from increases in interest rates.

During this time, you can comfortably compare rates months before your renewal date just to find a better deal. If the interest rates increase during your rate hold period, you would have nothing to worry about. Also, should the interest rates decrease, you can still negotiate for a new lower rate with your lender.

5. Switch mortgage lenders

Cutting ties with your current lender can be difficult—at least that’s the impression most lenders give to home buyers. But don’t be afraid of switching lenders, especially when you’ve found a better rate elsewhere.

Remember, getting a better deal on your mortgage can save you few thousands of dollars. Switching providers might mean you have to go through requalification but that is not a problem as long as you begin the process early enough before your renewal date.

6. Add some extra on your principal

If you’re looking for the best time to make a bigger payment on your mortgage, then renewal time is the best since there are no limits on pre-payment.

Making a lump-sum payment can put a huge dent in your mortgage amortization and you would be saving a lot of money on your total interest cost.

7. Consider switching to a broker

If you’re not already using a mortgage broker, then renewal time might be the best time to consider making the switch. According to a study by the Bank of Canada, most homebuyers who used a broker got a much lower mortgage rate than those who used one of the big banks.

Mortgage brokers are a better alternative because they have access to several lenders who offer different competitive rates, unlike the bank. Therefore, if you’re looking to get the best deal on your mortgage, switching to a broker might be a great move.

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3 Money and time-saving mortgage tips

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The path to buying a house isn’t the cheapest nor the easiest. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began last year, there has been several opportunities and challenges for first-time home buyers in the Canadian real estate market.

For some, sudden changes to their lifestyle created better opportunities to improve their savings plan while for others, such plans were halted due to the economic impact of the pandemic and rising home prices in real estate markets across Canada. According to the Canadian Real Estate Association, over 550,000 properties were sold in Canada last year, a new record for the country’s real estate market and a huge boost for the Canadian economy.

If you are a prospective buyer, looking to purchase a home within the year or just planning for the future, having access to the right information, resources and support can be crucial during your home-buying process. Many people—especially first-time home buyers—easily fall into home debt due to a lack of proper research into the market.

There are some important factors to consider in ensuring that your mortgage works best for you by not only saving you time but money. However, before you start searching for a home to buy, you should have a good idea of just how much you’re able to afford for one. 

Checking your credit score using a Canadian mortgage calculator before applying for a mortgage, would give you a realistic price range and equally inform you of your chances of getting your mortgage approved.

Here are some important mortgage tips to help you save time and money while house hunting:

1. Know the penalties on your mortgage

There are several reasons why anyone would want to sell their property. From changes in your financial or marital status to getting transferred to a new location due to either school or work. However, these circumstances could lead to you selling your home and breaking the terms of agreement on your mortgage.

If you’re on a variable-rate mortgage with one of the major banks in Canada, to successfully break your mortgage, you would need to pay about 3 months’ worth of interest. For a fixed-rate mortgage, the cost is much higher than 3 months of interest and there’s also the option of an interest rated differential (IRD). This is typically based on your remaining mortgage balance and current mortgage rates.

To avoid penalties on your mortgage, apply for a portable mortgage that allows you to transfer your existing mortgage to a new property and even combine it with another loan, if necessary. There’s also the option of an assumable mortgage, where you can transfer the mortgage to a qualified buyer instead of breaking it.

2.  Inquire about pre-payment privileges

When buying a home, you need to understand how rising interest rates would affect your mortgage. Without having any pre-payment privileges, the larger portion of your monthly mortgage payment would go towards the interest against the principal—making it harder to complete your mortgage.

Once you have pre-payment privileges, you’re offered enough flexibility to repay a percentage of the principal on your mortgage before the amortization period is over—and without any penalty. In fact, some lenders may even offer you their best rate to avoid giving you the option of pre-payment over a fixed period of time. Therefore, it is important to ask your lender the specific kind of pre-payment privileges you enjoy on your mortgage.

The amount of money you save by taking advantage of pre-payment privileges is quite substantial. For example, if you took a $300,000 mortgage at a fixed rate of 3.29% over five years and is amortized over 25 years. By making a pre-payment of $2,000 annually, you would save about $21,787 in interest and finish paying off your mortgage almost 4 years faster—assuming the interest rate was fixed throughout the amortization period.

You can always use a mortgage calculator to check much you would be saving by making extra mortgage payments annually.

3.  Know the benefits of making a less than 20% down payment

Typically, when house hunting, the recommended amount of down payment you need to make is 20% of the property cost. However, you mustn’t always pay that high to get the best deal.

Surprisingly, lenders offer the best interest rates to those who want high-ratio mortgage because they have less than the recommended 20% down payment. This because a high-ratio mortgage borrower has a low risk against losses.  

Default insurance makes it a lot cheaper for lenders to easily fund the mortgage loan, allowing them to transfer some of the savings—in form of lower rates—back to the borrower.

It is important to always carry out thorough research before applying for a mortgage to know what the best rates are, if a broker is more advantageous than a bank, or simply how you can get the best credit scores.

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Major housing markets to shine this year and next: Reuters poll

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BENGALURU (Reuters) – The outlook for major global housing markets is brighter than previously thought due to expectations for a broad based economic recovery and easy monetary policy, with only a low risk that a COVID-19 resurgence will derail activity, Reuters polls showed.

Over 100 million people have been infected by the coronavirus, leading to a healthcare crisis and deep economic recessions, but fiscal and monetary stimulus, and the rollout of vaccines, mean the global economy is set to recover this year.[ECILT/WRAP]

While already high unemployment caused by the pandemic is expected to rise further, the Jan. 15-Feb. 1 poll of over 130 property market analysts showed average home prices would rise this year and next in most countries polled.

That compares to largely pessimistic predictions made in September.

An economic rebound, loose monetary policy, government stimulus, pent-up demand and tight inventories were expected to boost housing market activity to varying degrees in Australia, Britain, Canada, Dubai, India and the United States.

“A solid economic recovery bolstered by more fiscal stimulus, still-low mortgage rates, and unmet demand should continue to prop up home sales and construction in 2021,” said Gregory Daco, chief U.S. economist at Oxford Economics.

“We expect some gradual moderation in price growth over the course of 2021 as home sales cool, but sparse inventory will keep a solid floor under home prices.”

Reuters Poll: Major housing markets outlook https://fingfx.thomsonreuters.com/gfx/polling/bdwvkybkqvm/Reuters%20Poll%20-%20Global%20housing%20markets%20outlook%20-%20Feb%202021.PNG

Three-quarters, or 77 of 102 analysts, said in response to an additional question that the risk of a COVID-19 resurgence derailing housing markets this year was low.

Although the U.S. economy on average contracted last year at its sharpest pace since the Second World War due to the pandemic, it had little bearing on housing market activity, an immunity the sector was expected to carry this year.

Despite the recent surge in coronavirus infections and renewed restrictions imposed in the United States, house prices there were forecast to rise over the next two years and activity was expected to continue on a strong course. [US/HOMES]

“The recent COVID-19 surge has not had any noticeable impact, with transactions near record high levels despite record high case growth,” said Brett Ryan, senior U.S. economist at Deutsche Bank.

“Pent-up activity from COVID-19-shutdowns earlier in the year will soon start to wane and transactions will likely normalize. More housing supply will come online as vaccination picks up at the same time that base effects will start to roll off.”

Reuters Poll: Global house prices outlook – Feb 2021 https://fingfx.thomsonreuters.com/gfx/polling/xklpylyqbvg/Reuters%20Poll%20-%20Global%20house%20prices%20outlook%20-%20Feb%202021.PNG

When asked about the primary driver of housing market activity this year, over 55% of respondents, or 57 of 101, chose an economic recovery and easy monetary policy.

Of the remainder, 20 analysts named a desire for more living space and 18 said a successful vaccine rollout, while six chose fiscal stimulus.

Australian and Canadian house prices were expected to rise significantly this year and next, helped by low mortgage rates and massive fiscal spending. [AU/HOMES][CA/HOMES]

When asked what was more likely for housing market activity, 58 of 100 respondents said an acceleration. The others expected a slowdown.

Those views were swayed by a somewhat modest outlook for the British, Dubai and Indian housing markets compared to the rest.

Indian house prices were expected to barely rise this year despite an economic recovery and supportive policies, and Dubai house prices were predicted to fall at a slower pace this year and next compared to the previous poll. [IN/HOMES][AE/HOMES]

British house prices were forecast to flatline this year.[GB/HOMES]

“While we expect a strong start to the year, we expect momentum to wane following the end of the stamp duty (property sales tax) holiday in April. Towards the end of the year the housing market should settle,” said Aneisha Beveridge at estate agents Hamptons International.

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